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Avoiding Narcissism
According to Jean Twenge’s definition, “Narcissists are overly focused on themselves and lack empathy for others, which means they cannot see another perspective” (Twenge 774).This definition indicates narcissists are people who think superior about themselves and it is reflected in their behavior. Narcissists are not born over night, it is a long process and gradually a person reaches the narcissist stage. If we go back to childhood stage of a narcissist we see that the root of the problem lies in that stage. I am not suggesting that molding and teaching of every parent leads to this but narcissist experiences something more than a normal child.
Ever since I was a little boy, my mind has also been molded to think and behave almost exactly the way that the molder intended to. Whether the molding done to my brain has been to share with other children in order to learn to be respectful to others or to believe in myself no matter my ability in order to learn self-esteem, the molding has been great and persistent. Each parent or educator wants the children that they are working with at a young age to come out to be the best they can be. With both parents and educators shaping young children from the very start, there is a hindrance in front of these children to the reality of the unfair and sometimes evil world they are growing up in. Jean Twenge in her essay “An Army of One: Me” talks about both the self-esteem and narcissism that she sees in the very generation she belongs to can be indentified clearly as the very product of the parents and educators of her generation, the people that were molding them from the very beginning. These elders have been drilling children to improve the way they feel about themselves.  Karen Armstrong in “Homo Religiosus” discusses how thoughts and behaviors of selfishness, greed, and pre-occupation are engraved in human nature.  Armstrong also touches upon how a sense of narcissism can arise from these thoughts.  She also discusses how we are born with cravings to promote ourselves in ways that can come off narcissistic.  I believe that one can develop a strong sense of personal identity that does not produce a sense of narcissism by keeping certain information to oneself. 
There is a direct correlation between lack of negative feedback and narcissisms. Today parents have changed their attitude towards the mistakes done by children. There is a tendency not to point out flaws in children as they feel this will lower their self-esteem. Consequently it is seen that this leads to a sense of superiority and above average feeling among kids. Even in school now days a pizza part is thrown for everyone who passed rather than for students who performed exceptionally good and the reasoning behind this is that, the school does not want to point out the flaws and lower self esteem. I believe there is no harm in knowing ones mistake and no man is perfect. There should be constant monitoring some elderly and loved one around so that one if aware of the realities. A mistake committed is not a crime and there is a scope for learning and growing out of it. When I started going to school my mother kept telling me that I had to get good grades and keep trying harder. This had become increasingly difficult for me as I lost point in my class participation due to my shy nature. Inspite of getting good grades in tests and homework my mother was hard on me. The clear intension behind was to make me come out of my shell so that nothing holds me back, not even my fears. If someone points our mistake to us that clearly indicates that person cares for us and we should learn from it rather than being self centered and ignorant about our own mistakes. Just like Twenge said – “We simply take it for granted that we should feel good about ourselves, we are all special, and we all deserve to follow our dreams” because this generation “is straightforward and unapologetic about self-focus” (481)
The media is a big influence on how one should feel about themselves.  It affects mainly children and others subconsciously, attempting to raise self-esteem.  Twenge discusses the media by stating “Magazines, television talk shows, and books all emphasize the importance of high self-esteem for children, usually promoting feelings that are actually a lot close to narcissism” (484).  At a young age children are encouraged to believe they are the best.  At this young age, children are most susceptible to developing a certain trait and letting it carry with them for the rest of their lives. This feeling of being the best tends to grow with age, thus developing a sense of narcissism.  If the media were to let up a little and take a step back on pushing high self-esteem on children, narcissistic behaviors can be dodged.  Armstrong believes humans are born with narcissistic tendencies.  “Once you gave up the nervous craving to promote yourself, denigrate others, draw attention to your unique and special qualities, and ensure that you were first in the pecking order, you experienced an immense peace” (34).
In life an individual does not require need to become someone else. We often hear people say that they want to become this when they grow. This is a mistaken attitude as the person in that is different than the person in you. Every person is unique in themselves and no one can be someone as everyone is special in their own way. People grow influenced by their environments, family, friends and loved ones. There should be constant effort to improve one’s self and take lessons or imbibe good qualities from others. Now days I often see the tendency of questioning why I did not get a grade like my fellow student rather than asking where I went wrong in my paper. This reflects an attitude of refusal to take note of one’s mistake and blame it on others. This simply leaves no room for any kind of improvement. There is no need to have a sense of narcissism when you can still have a sense of personal identity without it.  Being at peace with oneself shows a strong sense of self.
Developing a strong sense of self is about knowing the truth about the real world at a young age.  I think that children should be told about the real world from the very beginning and not given skewed realities. I think that they should have to face the harsh truth from the very beginning to learn from the very beginning. For example of the views of the children of the world being skewed early and for reasons that may be harmful in the long run, Twenge tells of one popular method for teachers of this generation. This method “tells teachers not to correct students' spelling or grammar, arguing that kids should be 'independent spellers' so they can be treated as 'individuals'.” (Twenge, 489). Twenge then mocks this method, writing, “Imagine reading a nuespaper wyten using that filosofy” (489). This simply does not make sense at all. The English language is a not something that can be individualized. Each child can choose to use certain words to sound more or less eloquent, but “new” words cannot be made up. People would not be able to communicate if there were “independent spellers.” Think of the situation with children in poorer countries or simply poor families have to learn to struggle and suffer from the very beginning, whether it is with food or shelter or simply a lack of clothing. Either way, they do have to learn to struggle. As Twenge says, “sometimes negative feelings can be a motivator. Trying something challenging and learning from the experience is better than feeling good about oneself for no reason” (492). These parents cannot skew facts, teach these children to learn to love themselves, cook reality's facts or make them believe something that is not true. They have no other way than to teach the truth. If every child were given the far truth from the beginning, things would be better in our generation.
One can develop a strong sense of personal identity without producing a sense of narcissism.  Promoting self-esteem takes the focus off of others and puts it more on the self.  Having high-self esteem can result in narcissism because it leads to caring only about oneself and narcissistic people tend to show an extreme interest in themselves.  They will put having respect for themselves above showing respect to others.  The promotion of self-esteem encourages the approval of oneself, which leads to the need to show others this approval.  People tend to brag when they succeed.  They believe succeeding increases self-esteem, when in reality it increases narcissism.  Being narcissistic and having high self-esteem are two different things.  Narcissism is feeling like you are better than everyone and only care for yourself.  It is when someone regards of himself or herself to highly that self-esteem results in narcissism.  All of this could possibly be avoided by reducing the amount of media being publicized to children about raising self-esteem and knowing the truth about the real world at a young age.
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Brief Introduction about the Author – EVAN SELINGER & BRETT T. ROBINSON

Evan Selinger is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Rochester Institute of Technology, affiliated Faculty with the Golisano Institute for Sustainability and the Center for Media, Arts, Games, Interaction, and Creativity (MAGIC) and also a Fellow at The Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology.           
Evan’s research addresses ethical issues concerning technology, science, law, expertise, and sustainability. A prolific academic author, Evan also cares deeply about public engagement, writing for popular magazines, newspapers, and blogs, including: Wired, Slate, The Atlantic, The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, Three Quarks Daily, Huffington Post, and The Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technology.

Brett T. Robinson is a Visiting Professor of Marketing in the Mendoza College of Business at the University of Notre Dame. He has worked in several industries including consumer packaged goods, professional sports, and manufacturing. Robinson earned his doctorate from the University of Georgia, where he also helped establish the New Media Institute.  He is also a Marketing and media studies scholar with industry experience in advertising, public relations and digital media management. He authored the renowned book "Appletopia: Media Technology and the Religious Imagination of Steve Jobs".

 In the article (Facebook Home Propaganda Makes Selfishness Contagious) the author is trying to say that present generation technology has made people selfish and they have stopped respecting their family and others people around them. They are so much devoted to their personal life that they do not bother as what others are doing and do not have time for people around them. They think that they are superior, and are the centre of the world and do not bother about others, without thinking the circumstances of neglecting.
Ex – The main character does not switch off his mobile phone when a stewardess instructs him to do so. Another example is the lady feeding her family. She gets so much devoted to Facebook that she neglects everything and just thinks of her entertainment only.

In the other article (Buying Apple Products Is a Form of ʻNarcissism’) the author is trying to evaluate the technology and the superiority of the product which Apple has created by embedding the features and OS in the hardware. Mac & Apple products are co-related to each other in terms of quality & trustworthiness in the minds of people. People perceive that the company provides a great value for their products. The attraction of technology stems in part from our admiration of ourselves; personal technology points us back to ourselves. The ability for a product like the iMac to possess personality traits or to reflect a particular way of thinking and processing information grants it a human likeness.

These ads rely on a metaphor that equates the human actors with the hardware and software of their respective computer systems. This biological analogy between computer parts and the human body reminds us that the metaphors that guide computer development come from our own human faculties, particularly cognition and memory. The Apple Ads speaks the ways in which the human have been technologically modified rather than the way the technology has been personalized. The products are highly sophisticated and user friendly to use which makes life easier and simple. The attraction of technology is so admirable that man moves in the same way as the computer moves. The computer symbolizes an extension of human thought, communication and memory.
By substituting “iMac” for “I am,” the 1999 ad sets up a similitude between computing and thinking, reflecting the way we process information. For example, the extents to which we prefer one interface over another reveals a cognitive predisposition. So an insult hurled at PC users is not just about the type of computer they use, but an attack on their structure of thinking — because computer choice is a reflection of one’s personality and way of looking at the world.
The Apple ads, therefore, not only speak to the way in which technology has been personified (and extended as mirrors for the self), but also to the ways in which humans have been technologically modified. As Marshall McLuhan put it, “We shape our tools and thereafter our tools shape us.”

This was a great argument! As a millennial, there is a huge concern for personal engagement outside of the social media. It is often hard to pull ourselves out of the discussion on Facebook. It is an interesting marketing approach. One of the big (stereotyped) criticisms of the connected, particularly teens and 20-somethings, is that they can be in a room full of friends - all on their i-Phones, texting and playing.
Marketing hasn't turned us into a society of consumers; a marketplace full of cool consumer goods has turned us into consumers. Marketing generally doesn't try to establish the desire for a product that exists in and of itself, marketing just tries to steer that desire toward a particular brand of product. Facebook ads and use can encourage narcissistic behaviour, conceit, and vanity. These characteristics sometimes lie dormant in our personalities, which then become evident as we and others "reinvent" ourselves to friends and strangers alike, putting on our desired face, behaving as if we have a swooning audience waiting impatiently for our largest silly posted message. We begin to make hay of our otherwise boring lives, and in the process, become self indulged and egotistical.
The commercial puts selfish girl in a positive light while boring aunt is painted negatively. So, while both are selfish, the ad clearly portrays selfish technology girl as someone to emulate. Another factor to consider is that by making boring (and selfish) aunt the dominant feature of the family get together, it portrays family get-togethers in general as a negative experience.

Has the company sensed the backlash, as increasing numbers of users cut down or stop using FB, perhaps aware that their behaviour resembles a destructive addiction? (Excessive time spent on FB; discomfort/nervousness when separated from it; constant need to get "just a little more"; gradual separation from reality, family, friends; ignorance of basic manners because fix is more important than face to face personal interaction etc )
Some convictions deserve to be innovation proof. In fact, these convictions are fully compatible with embracing social media, perhaps even making the most of its potential. Rejecting the ethic promoted in the Home ads doesn’t perpetuate the fallacy of digital dualism, the mistaken conviction that online and offline lives are largely distinct rather than interrelated experiences.

 

Conclusion -

Online Homework Help

The critics of the ads "Home Facebook" are right: the clips are presenting escapism from exciting and important events. In fact the Facebook escapism is from a boring situation, a long waiting, loneliness, isolated communities; the posts are flashes of relationship and glimpses of life that give the false impression of being together when in fact we are separated. The Facebook is the Lethe sewer river that is taking us not from the exciting world of creation, action and travel, but from our daily perception of the reality. We care more about our own happiness than our responsibilities towards others.

Apple products are technologically advanced and provide superior quality that its customers are loyal fans of Apple, and are addicted to its products. Apples loyal customers influence others to buy the product due to its superior technology and upgrading the services & quality of the product and gives positive ads for better market capitalization.

 

1. Determine the mean, median, and mode for the following data set,
Then decide which is the best measure of central tendency if the data
Reflects a set of measurements of a physical constant.
{1. 39, 1. 28, 1. 32, 1. 22, 1. 37, 1. 35, 1. 34, 1. 29, 1. 30, 6. 98, 1. 27, 1.31}

 

Solution 1
Mean = (1.39+1.28+ 1.32+ 1.22+ 1.37+ 1.35+ 1.34+ 1.29+ 1.30+ 6.98+ 1.27+1.31)/12
= 1.785
Median = (1.31+1.32)/2 = 1.315
For Mode we can use Mean – mode = 3(mean - median)
Therefore ,
Mode = 3median – 2 mean = 0.375

From the above values we see that Median is the best measure of central tendency because it is providing us the most central value than the other two measures.

 

 

 

 

 

2. A combination lock has three wheels1 each containing the numbers zero through nine.
How many possible combinations are there for the lock?

 

Solution

Since each wheel contains 10 digits and obviously the lock combination depends on the order of numbers as well

So the first wheel can be assigned any one of the 10 digits
Similar to the other wheels.

It is clear that for lock combination number on one wheel depend on the other.

Therefore total no of case = 10*10*10 = 1000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. A lottery drawing selects 4 out of 10 numbers (without rep1acement). If a player can choose four numbers but must only match three to win, what is the player’s probability of winning the lottery?

 

Solutions

Let us look at the total no of cases

Given it’s a four digit no its first place can be assigned any one of the 10 no. Also the drawing are without replacement .Therefore, 2nd place can be filled in 9 ways and 3rd place can be filled in 8 ways and the last can be filled in ways.

So total no of cases = 10*9*8*7 = 5040

Now, in order to win the lottery he must get three of his no matching. Those three no can be selected in 4C3 ways and the remaining one place can assume any no except the number which had already appeared in the lottery . So there are 6 ways in that last place can be filled.
So favourable case = 4*6 = 24

Hence probability = 24/5040 = 1/210

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. What is the cumulative relative frequency of each outcome for the roll of a fair?
Six-sided die?

 

Solution

Cumulative

Frequency

Relative Frequency

Cumulative Relative Frequency

1

1

0.167

0.167

2

1

0.167

0.334

3

1

0.167

0.501

4

1

0.167

0.668

5

1

0.167

0.835

6

1

0.167

1.002

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Calculate the z-score in each case for a normal distribution with mean (J) and
Standard deviation a.

a. X = 45, J = 50, a = 5

b. X= 1, J = 2, a= 0.1

c. X = 14, J = 12, a = 4

 

We know that z = (X-J)/a
For problem 5 a, z = (45-50)/5 = -1
For problem 5 b, z = (1-2)/0.1 = -10
For problem 5c, z = (14-12)/4 = 0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Calculate the probability P{X <= x) in each case for a normal distribution with
Mean (m) 3 and standard deviation (s) = 0.5.

a. 1. 9
b. 4
c. 2. 9

We know that, z = (x-m) /s
So
For Problem, 6a, z = (1.9-3)/0.5 = -2.2
Therefore, P(X<=x) = P(X<=1.9) = ɸ (-2.2) = 0.5-0.4861 = 0.0139
For problem 6b, z = (4-3)/0.5 = 2
Therefore, P(X<=x) = P(X<=4) = ɸ (2) = 0.5-0.4772 = 0.0228
For problem 6c, z = (2.9-3)/0.5 = -0.2
Therefore, P(X<=x) = P(X<=2.9) = ɸ (-0.2) = 0.5 – 0.0793 = 0.4207
[All the values of ɸ (z) are taken from standard normal distribution table.]

 

 

 

 

 

7. Two independent discrete random variables X and Y have marginal
Distributions f1 (x) = X/21 and f2(y) = y/36 for certain sets of values x
And y. Find the bi-variate distribution f{x, y).

Solution
Since both the random variable X and Y are independent .Therefore, they are non- correlated. Hence they do not possess a bivariate distribution function.

Hence f(x,y) = 0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Determine the critical value c for a normally distributed random variable with mean (m) = 0 and variance (a2) = 100 for each of the following significance levels.
a. 0.01
b. 0.05
c. 0.10

Solutions

Here , we have to go for the table of level of significance and critical value

So from table

For 0.01 LOS , c = 2.58(2 tailed) , 2.33 (1 tailed)

For 0.05 LOS , c = 1.96(2 tailed) , 1.645 (1 tailed)

For 0.1 LOS , c = 1.645 (2 tailed) , 1.28 (1 tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9 . What is the probability of a Type I error if the following significance
levels are chosen?
a. 0.05
b. 0.01

Solution
We know that ,
For Continuous distribution, probability of type 1 error is level of significance ,
Therefore
Answer   9a Probability of Type one error = 0.05
Answer    9b Probability of type one error =  0.01